domingo, 2 de junho de 2019

Pipeline Gas Kampu Greater Sunrise mai TL Teknikamente Viavel no Ekonomikamente Komersial

PARTILHAR

Husi: Teodoro M. Mota | opiniaun

Projeitu tasi mane ekonomikamente viavel waihira pipeline mai TL. Projeitu tasi mane nebee involve suai supply base, refinaria betano, planta LNG beasu, sentru elektriku betano no auto estrada suai-beasu nudar prekondisaun hodi asegura pipeline mai TL. Estudu pipeline mai TL tama ona ba faze FEED (front end engineering desing). Wainhira tama ona faze FEED signifika hakat liu ona conceptual desing no estudu feasibility. Iha faze nee, molok hahu EPC (engineering, procurement and construction), estudu barak nebee hala'o ona hodi buka hatene problema teknika, inklui estimasaun kustu investimentu ba projeitu pipeline. Rezultadu husi nemak hanaran "FEED package" nebee kontenta dokumentus holistiku nudar baze husi oferesaun kontratu EPC ou EPC plus finance.

1. Pipeline

Teknikamente pipeline gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) mai TL viável. Tuir data no estudu seismiku earthquakes hatudu katak rai nakdoko iha Tasi Timor la liu magnitude 6, iha tinan 1962 rai nakdoko iha tasi Timor iha 5.0-5.9 magnitude husi ne’eba kedas too mai agora rai nakdoko husi 0.6-4.9 magnitude deit. Ezemplu iha Malampaya, Turkey, Sumatra, Nipónika rai nakdoko liu magnitude 7, maibe realidade pipeline la tohar. Nunee pipeline mai TL teknikamente viavel. Distansia pipiline GS mai TL 233 km no GS ba Darwin-Australia 500 km. Estudu husi Petronas hatudu kustu pipeline ba Australia $ 1.77 biliaun no mai TL $ 1.06 biliaun. Nunee pipeline mai TL ekonómikamente Komersial. Bele asesu Relatóriu Estudu DNV-Norway no Petronas (Fontes informasaun; ANPM no Timor Gap).

Saida mak pipeline?. Pipeline mak pipa hodi transfer gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) mai planta LNG Beasu ho distansia 233 km no kustu pipeline total $ 1.06 billioens dollars. Planta LNG mak atu likifika gas ba faze liquidu hodi uza ba produtu oin-oin. Refinaria mak fabrika ou fasilidade industria hodi produs mina (crude oil) sai produtu petroleum nebee bele uja direitamente ou produtu oin-oin nebee sai nesesidade baziku ba industria petrokimika. Produtu refinaria mak gasoline, combustivel diesel, kerosene, elpije, mina nafta, no produtu seluk. Planu governu TL refinaria sei hari iha Betanu. Enkuantu suai supply base signifika fatin lojistiku ou apoiu lojistiku ba aktividades industria nebe opera iha teritoriu TL, tantu aktividade industria iha tasi laran nomos iha rai maran. Investimentu kustu ba instalasaun pipeline, hari planta LNG no refinaria, prosesaun ou surface facilities to’o marketing total $ 7.9 billioens dollars no investimentu kustu ba esplorasaun, perfurasaun, ekstraksi ou foti mina no gas husi tasi okos no marine facilities total $ 2.6 billioens dollars (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap).

Molok hahu konstrusaun pipeline, importante mak governu TL tenke buka kompanya minarai sira nebe kualifikasaun excellente, iha certifikasaun no rekonhesementu internasional, iha esperiensia diak sobre instalasaun kadoras iha tasi laran (subsea pipeline) no rai maran, susesu iha projeitu boot barak iha mundu ligasaun ho industria mina no gas, liu-liu projeitu boot sira nebee iha deep water, atlantiku, gulf mexico, rusia no ect, para asegura no resposabilija ho diak ba pipeline nebee sei instal iha tasi klean timor purvolta 2800 metru ho distansia 233 km. Tuir informasun husi Timor Gap no ANPM kompanya Allseas mak sei responsabilija ba instalasaun pipeline husi kampu gas greater sunrise mai TL. Kompanya Allseas konsidera nudar global lider ba instalasaun pipeline ou konstrusaun pipa gas iha tasi laran, famouzu, kualifikadu no konhesidu iha industria (allseas.com). Tuir informasaun instalasaun ba pipeline sei hahu iha tinan 2020 ba leten.

Iha faktores balun nebee importante tebes presija konsidera wainhira dada pipeline gas: buka distansia ou rute nebee besik nunee bele hamenus pipa, safety no ekonomis, pipa nebee uja atu supply gas tenke tuir estandarte internasional industria mina no gas, pipa tenke bele atasi presaun husi tasi ben, pipa tenke instal dok husi laloran tasi, inklui instal dok husi area tasi nebee fasil atu longsor. Ho ida nee presija tebes estudu seismiku, peskija topografiku iha tasi laran (bathymetric) nebee klaru para asegura hodi determina rute no tasi nia klean nebee akurat. Pipa nebee instal tenke hare mos ba nia elevasaun, friction lose (pressaun gas nebee lakon durante transmisaun gas), estabelijasaun no kondisaun rai, enviromentu no isu legal, iha parte seluk isu politik no seguransa, ect. Faktores sira nee hotu presija konsidera no kalkula hotu iha planu dezenvolvimentu projeitu, nunee bele tulun diminui risku no garantia viabilidade de projeitu.

2. LNG

Saida mak LNG?. LNG mak abreviasaun husi Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG hetan husi pemampatan no cooling gas natural to’o pontu kiik liu (due poit) ho aproximasaun -1600C (-2600F). Natural gas signifika gas nebee fasil atu sunu, komponentes importante nebee eziste iha natural gas mak husi metana ho volume liu 80%, inklui komponente etana, propane, butane, nitrogen no helium. Produtu helium importante tebes uja ba seitor defeza. Gas natural mosu iha rai nia okos no dala ruma mistura ho mina. Benefisiu direita husi mina no gas natural mak bele uja hanesan kobustivel no bele produs produtu ou sasan kimika hanesan pupuk, sepatu, roupa, lem, triplex, tinta, plastiku, roda, bola, CD, tasu, oklu, payung, pasta, mangeira, fiu eletrisidade, fatin cas ahi ou terminal ahi, metro, pinsel, sasan halimar ba labarik kiik, supeita, kadeira, butyl ou fatin mina morin, camera dijital, no ect. Sasan ou equipamentus sira nee hotu produs husi mina no gas natural. Signifika sei hamoris industria no ekonomia husi area nee.

Meksiko, Korea, China, Japan, no ect, nudar nasaun importador gas. Agora dadaun gas nebee produs iha kampu Bayu Undun supply tuir pipa ba Darwin LNG, depois liquifika molok faan ba Jepan. Merkadu mundial konaba LNG sei kontinua dezenvolve tebes. Enkuantu iha Indonesia investimentu ba LNG dominante liu investimentu ba mina. Indonesia potensia ho rekursu gas natural. Data 2015 hatudu Indonesia nia rezerva provadu gas ou proven reserve total 98 tcf (trillion cubic feet). Iha asia Indonesia sai nasaun rangkin terseiru eksportir LNG depois Australia no Qatar. Indonesia nia LNG mai husi kampu Arun, Bontang no Tangguh. Sira nia LNG faan ba China, Korea selatan, Taiwan, Jepan no ect. Signifika demanda LNG sei massiva. Nasaun barak mak sei presija tebes LNG tamba nesidade no ekonomia rai laran, elektrisidade, transportasaun, gas ba nesesidade uma laran hodi tein, hotel, restaurante, no ect. Inklui nasaun sira eropa mos sai konsumedor ba LNG. Signifika futuru mai presu LNG autentikamente sei sae makas. Nunee nesesidade merkadu LNG sei massiva.

Hare ba demanda no kresimentu nesesidade LNG fo certeza no posibilija TL hodi produs kampu gas greater sunrise nebe ho potensia rezervatoriu gas purvolta 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet) no mina 300 MMbbls (kondensadu no LPG) ho kampu gas seluk nebee identifikadu ho rezerva gas produs hodi asegura sustentabilidade receitas ba kofre estadu. Wainhira TL produs ona LNG, ita bele faan ba nasaun seluk, nunee mos bele utilija ba nesesidade rai laran para tulun dudu ekonomia rai laran no redus importasaun gas husi nasaun seluk.

3. Planta LNG

Molok hari planta LNG, presija tebes prepara uluk Intel-industri para responde ba susesu mega projeitu refere. Intel-industria mak akumulasaun no partisipasaun husi kompanya sira nebee responde ba projeitu LNG. Kompanya sira nee tenke iha kualifikasaun, certifikasaun no rekonhesementu internasional iha industria tantu minarai, konstrusaun civil, mekaniku, petrokimika, inklui kompanya supply equipamentus, kompanya semen, beton, supply elektrisidade, no ect. Para asegura susesu ba mega projeitu. Elektrisidade ou primover importante tebes ba operasaun refinaria no planta LNG.

i. Planta LNG depende ba medida no montante equipamentus, presija rai ho luan kuaje to’o 1-2 km2 nunee bele rai sasan no equipamentus mekaniku, tanki-tanki akumulasaun gas, jenerator no equipamentus seluk tan. Fatin ba fasilidade refere tenke besik ba tasi para hamenus distansia supply gas ba ro tanker.

ii. Planta LNG besik tasi presija strutura rai nebee bele retain equipamentus no todan durante tempu naruk no permukaan rai la bele tun ou la bele iha mudansa ba rai.

iii. Fatin fasilidade LNG tenke hetan asesu diak husi tanker-tanker LNG ho nia naruk 300 meter ho tasi nia klean minimal 15-20 meter para ro bele sadere. Inklui presija mos hari fatin alfandega ba ro sira nebee postpone posibililidade bele hari besik iha dermaga konstruksi.

iv. Rai nakdoko, anin boot, inundasaun ou tsunami bele kauja dejastre ba infrastruktura fasilidade planta LNG. Ho ida nee, selesaun ba enviromentu tenke hare didiak para hadok husi insidenti geofisika nebee ekstrim. Tamba nee presija tebes estudu sensitivitas LNG para hare didiak no hili fatin nebee akurat. TL nia rai secara seismik aktif tamba hamosu husi lempeng tektonika India-Australia no Eurasia nebee nafatin halai kuaje 7 cm kada anum (Atlantic LNG, 2007).

v. Fatin fasilidade LNG tenke dok husi rai nebee protezidu, stratejiku no sensitivu ho rajaun para nafatin konserva enviromentu nebee naturalmente diak, prezerva kultura no ekonomia.

vi. Atu maksimija empregador husi rai laran no fo benefisiu diak ba Timor oan, mak fasilidade planta LNG tenke liga ho linha transportasaun nebee diak, inklui sentru aktividade servisu. Karik desijaun hili fatin hari fasilidade LNG seidauk klaru, entaun diak liu hala’o uluk estudu viabilidade no peskija sientifika hodi hetan fatin nebee suitable hodi harii planta LNG.

4. Refinaria no Fasilidade Refinaria

Saida mak refinaria?, refinaria mak fabrika ou fasilidade industria hodi produs crude oil sai produtu petroleum nebe bele uja direitamente ou produtu oin-oin nebee sai nesesidade baziku ba industria petrokimika. Produtu nebee produs husi refinaria mak gasoline, combustivel diesel, kerosene, elpije, mina nafta, no produtu seluk. Hari fasilidade refinaria importante hodi estimula, dezenvolve no esplora liu tan potensia mina nebee eziste iha teretoriu Timor laran tantu iha tasi laran no rai maran. Inklui refinaria bele simu mina husi nasaun vizinu sira hodi halo prosesaun molok lori ba merkadu.

Saida mak fasilidade refinaria?. Fasilidade refinaria signifika kontruksi kompleksu nebee kompostu husi parte ou equipamentus barak nebee hamrik mesak. Etapa konstrusaun projeitu refinaria teknikamente fahe ba fase rua no subfase nebee presija han tempu naruk bele to’o tinan, mak hanesan: 1). Preparasaun rai hodi harii fasilidade refinaria. 2).Transportasaun, mobilijasaun no prosesaun instalasi konstruksi, fatin rai produtu no fatin serbisu konstrusaun fasilidade alfandega, inklui halo teste ba sistema no equipamentus. Konstrusaun fasilidade refinaria iha parte sul tasi Timor Leste sei presija harii fasilidade seluk hanesan penunjang para tulun aselera projeitu refere.

i. Preparasaun fatin kompostu husi: asesu estrada, fasilidade provizoriu, kamp konstrusaun, elektrisidade, be, inklui equipamentus nebee uja ba halo beton no harii dermaga konstrusaun.

ii. Fasilidade sekunder: presija hari fatin helikopter ou aviaun hodi para, jerador listri, turbing gas, laboratorium, fatin administrasaun, hari uma permanente, fasilidade ba empregador no fasilidade hodi jere foer.

iii. Modul-modul hari konstruksaun fasilidade refinaria: kompostu husi area simu mina, separasaun liquidu, meteran no redusaun presaun gas, sistema safety ho ground flares, unidade dehidrasaun be husi gas inklui adorpsi karbon, equipamentus halo malirin no liquidu ba gas, LPG, residu no fatin rai gas ho temperatur nebee kiik.

5. Risku (Challenge)

i. Risku ambiental. Mega projeitu sei lori impaktu negativu ba ambiental, projeitu nee sei kria potensia ba emisaun karbon ba atmosfir no sei kria material polusaun hanesan hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mina, lisu, be foer no lisu seluk ho kuantidade boot nebee bele estraga kondisaun enviromentu. Ezemplu risku ba biodiversidade no ekolojia tasi nebe akontese iha dezastre Deepwater Horizon mina nakfakar estraga animal no rikusoin iha tasi laran. Husi nee hakarak fo rekomendasaun ba governu: katak presija tenke reve lei konaba Analisis Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) no presija dezenvolve modul nebee komprehensivu hodi hala’o AMDAL ba projeitu. AMDAL tenke kompostu planu jere eviromentu nebee detailu esplika konaba jere no atuasaun polusaun, jestaun planu ba dejastre no mekanismu hodi kontrola no minimija impaktu negativu tantu kultura no sosial. Objektivu reve lei hodi kontrola polusaun no difini klaru konaba konstraint ou batasan zat-zat polusaun, inklui CO2, gas, no material kimika nebee estraga tasi ben, kualidade be no estruktura rai, inkui isu konaba polusaun sunu gas. Lei mos tenke define klaru sobre dezvantelasaun projeitu depois de perioudu operasaun hodi asegura katak labele husik hela foer, material kimika no poizon sira seluk nebee bele hafoer no estraga rikusoin sira iha teritoriu TL. Rekomendasaun seluk kada lei nebe halo tenke esplika klaru konaba nia sensaun, nunee karik kompanya ou empregador kontra lei bele submete an ba justisa no kumpri tuir lei nebe vigor.

ii. Risku ba isu sosial no kultura. Maske projeitu planta LNG no refinaria lori implikasaun pozitivu, maibe nia mos lori impaktu negativu ba povu TL tamba projeitu refere sei fo “ameasa” ba ema sira nebee nain ba rai, fo risku ba sira nia vida loron-loron no bele estraga fatin sagradu nebee reprezenta valor tradisional. Inklui prejensa empregador no kompanya husi estranjeiru sei fo ameasa ba ekonomia lokal hanesan aktividades peskas no agrikultura, no sei hasa’e numeru vulnerabilidade ba sirklu feto, idouzu no labarik foin sae. Husi nee hakarak fo rekomendasaun ba governu: katak direitu ba rai nain no propriadade seluk tenke define klaru, ho rekonesementu no direitu ba rai kada pessoa inklui sistema nain tradisional. Ho ida nee, presija revizaun ba lei konaba rai no lei ba area protejidu. Desijaun saida deit konaba fatin projeitu tenke hahu uluk ho analija no kordenasaun kompostu husi tradisaun, sosial, kultura, fatin sagradu, rai no faktores seluk nebee integra iha rekomendasaun para ikus mai bele atasi impaktu negativu ba projeitu. Tamba nee presija involvimentu aktivu husi sosiadade sivil no lokal. Iha parte seluk, rekuirementu kontraktual kompanya tenke konstitui ho arbitrase nebee sei mosu tamba influensia husi empregador estranjeiru no liu-liu empregador husi estranjeiru sira tenke respeitu no valorija valor no kultura lokal, inklui iha obrigasaun tenke hakruk ba tribunal no lei nebee vigor iha TL. Ho ida nee, bele minimize konflitu entre empregador lokal no internasional. Rekomendasaun seluk, entidade governu tenke tau atensaun didiak ba isu jeneru para la bele kria diskriminasaun iha servisu fatin.

iii. Risku seluk mak sei laiha rendementu ba taxa ne’ebe signifikante, dependente maka’as ba industria petrolifera, kuaze servisu hotu fo ba ema estranjeiru bele prejudika vida sosial no estabilidade, estraga meiu ambiente, muda ema husi sira nia rain-rasik no projeitu sei okupa rai no tasi hodi limite to’os nain no peskadores sira hodi kaer ikan no ect, asidente katastrofiku, violasaun ba diretus humanu no komunidade bele prejudika impresaun seguransa no politika, projetu enklave sei la rekruta ema Timor-oan ka aumenta infrastrutura lokal ka industria. Konsekuensia sira ne’e tipiku tebes ba projetu petroleu iha nasaun barak no akontese nunee. Tamba nee presija antesipa no tenke iha planu integradu hodi kombate risku hirak nee.  Skenariu hirak temi ona iha leten sei la akontese, depende ba asaun no boa vontade husi entidade nasaun nia tenke involve no partisipa aktivu komesa husi governu, kompanya minarai, lideransa no autoridade lokal, sosidade civil, lideransa adat, igreija, forsa FFDTL, PNTL, no kada individu tenke preparadu kontribui no promove paz, dame, estabilidade no unidade nasional hodi simu no kontribui ba projeitu pipeline, hari fasilidade planta LNG, refinaria no industria derivativa seluk para asegura katak mega projeitu refere sei lori benefisiu no oportunidade boot ba ekonomia TL.

iv. Risku ba equipamentus pipeline, fasilidades planta LNG no refinaria signifika katak iha industria mina no gas nafatin hare ba efektividade kustu projeitu (cost effective) no investimentu projeitu to’o tempu naruk. Tamba nee identifikasaun ba rezervatoriu mina no gas (proven reserve) importante tebes hodi optimiza no garantia kontinuidade operasaun fasilidades planta LNG to’o tempu naruk. Wainhira kampu greater sunrise produs besik remata, presija tebes identifikasaun kampu petroleum seluk hodi asegura kontinuidade operasaun equipamentus no fasilidades planta LNG.  Tamba rekursu mina no gas nebee limitadu no hotu sei prejudika equipametus planta LNG sai frujen, barailu, at, ikus mai abandona. Tamba nee bain-bain iha pratika real industria minarai, presija tebes investimentu massiva ba aktividades explorasaun. Aktividades explorasaun signifika aktividades sira nebee ligadu ho buka mina no gas, ikus mai hatene TL nia proven reserve mina no gas hodi asegura kontinuidade no sustentabilidades industria petrolifera.

v. Risku seluk mak “tusan ou debe”, tamba aumenta tusan ou debe ba TL. Fundu petrolifera (FP) agora dadaun rai iha Banku Federal U.S hela deit $ 16.98 billioens dollars, enkuantu tusan ba nasaun aumenta ba bei-beik, TL nia debe hamutuk $ 452 millioens hodi konstrui estrada iha teritoriu TL. Iha parte seluk receitas domestika TL nia sei kiik tebes. Dadus hatudu 2018 ita nia receitas domestika kobra deit $ 198 millioens dollar amerikanu. Tamba nee karik OJE kada anum mak kontinua sae to'o $ 1.4 billioens dollars mak estimasaun FP bele hotu iha tinan 12 ou 13 nia laran. Risku tusan sei mai husi tan imprestimu nebee Timor Gap halo hodi investa ba projeitu pipeline no hari fasilidade planta LNG. Ho partisipasaun TL via Timor Gap 56.56% iha kampu GS, TL tenke garante: tusan atu lori pipeline mai TL, tusan selu kompanya operador woodside, kompanya joint venture kompanya Osaka no parseria seluk, inklui fundu kontijensia ba seluk risku tomak 56.56%, fundu manutensaun no ect. Apakah ida nemak ita hanaran risku investimentu ba TL?. Se nunee, alternative no dalang stratejiku tuir pratika industria minarai mak governu TL via Timor Gap bele negosia fali ho international oil company (IOC) ruma para investa iha upstream, midstream no downstream nunee bele minimize no share risku.

Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gap, governu TL sei evita no la uja fundu petrolifera (FP) nebee agora hela deit ona $ 16.98 billioens dollars nudar oxigeniu ba vida nasaun TL. Enkuantu tuir estudu husi Timor Gap nudar national oil company (NOC) investimentu ba upstream, midstream no downstream kustu purvolta $ 10.5 billioens to’o $ 12 billioens dollars nunee Timor Gap sei la uja FP hodi halo investimentu. Investimentu bele mai husi partnership ou debe (loan). Kompanya no partnership mak sei investa engineering, procurement and construction plus finance (EPC plus finance). EPC plus finance signifika kompanya mak sei investa osan no konstrui projeitu intermu investimentu iha pipeline, marine no surface facilities. Kompanya operador, joint venture no Timor Gap bele halo imprestimu hodi halo investimentu no sira sei hetan fali osan wainhira hahu halo produsaun ba kampu Greater Sunrise ho potensia rezerva gas 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet) no mina 300 MMbbls kondensadu no LPG. Kompanya sei rekopera osan via profit share, cost recovery (CR), internal rate of return (IRR), ho insentiva seluk.

6. Benefisiu ou Vantajem

i. Pipeline gas mai TL, harii konstruksaun planta LNG no refinaria sei kria kampu serbisu ba timor oan barak bele to’o mil ba pozisaun tekniku no non-tekniku. Esperiensia hatudu iha nasaun seluk bele absorve kampu serbisu ba ema hamutuk 12000 tantu ema husi estudu area minarai no non-minarai. Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro, pipeline gas mai TL sei kria kampu servisu bele kobre to’o 10.000 pessoas (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias gmntv.tl, edisaun 12 maio 2019).

ii. Vantajem ekonomia rai laran: vantajem premeiru mosu kedan wainhira komesa hari konstrusaun ba projeitu, konstrusaun pipeline nebee dada husi tasi laran to’o mai rai maran inklui aktividade seluk. Aktividade hirak nee sei konsume fundus billioens dollar amerikanu. Montante hirak mak ekonomia timor nia sei hetan tulun hadia povu nia moris. Osan ba emprejariu lokal no osan ba empregador timor oan rasik hodi hadia rendimentu iha sira nia moris. Vantajem seluk hetan husi jasa-jasa durante konstrusaun projeitu no sosa sasan husi rekursu lokal. Maneira seluk nebee fasil hodi tulun dudu ekonomia lokal wainhira projeitu hahu mak emprejariu no povu TL prepara hahan no uma ba empregador no kompanya husi estranjeiru hodi aluga ou hola uma, hotel, modo, hahan iha restaurante no nesesidade loron-loron nebee produs no prepara husi negosiu lokal. Ikus mai sei estimula ekonomia rai laran no tulun hadia povu nia moris.

iii. Vantajem taxa ba governu: vantajem fijiku nebee hetan husi dezenvolvimentu projeitu mak vantajem taxa. Vantajem taxa mak rendimentu nebee governu TL hetan husi empregador no emprejariu tantu nasional no internasional. Taxa nebee emprejariu no empregador sei selu ba governu, inklui aktividades ekonomia nebee iha posibilidade sei mosu durante periodu konstrusaun no operasaun projeitu. Konsekuensia taxa husi aktividade projeitu upstream no downstream depende kondisaun taxa nebe governu TL prepara. Apakah sei kria taxa iha rai laran?, apakah sei halo regulamentu foun konaba taxa ba fasilidade?, no ect.

iv. Benefisiu direita husi mina no gas natural mak bele uja hanesan kobustivel no bele produs produtu ou sasan kimika hanesan pupuk, sepatu, roupa, lem, triplex, tinta, plastiku, roda, bola, CD, tasu, oklu, payung, pasta, mangeira, fiu eletrisidade, fatin cas ahi ou terminal ahi, metro, pinsel, sasan halimar ba labarik kiik, supeita, kadeira, butyl ou fatin mina morin, camera dijital, no ect. Sasan ou equipamentus sira nee hotu produs husi mina no gas natural. Signifika sei hamoris industria no ekonomia husi area nee.

v. Benefisiu seluk mak bele estimula no garantia sustentabilidade industria petroleum ate futuru. Fasilidade planta LNG nebee sei harii iha beasu laos deit produs ou likifika gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) ho potensia rezervatoriu 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet), maibe mos sei produs kampu seluk lokaliza iha tasi Timor identifikadu ho rezervatoriu gas mak kampu gas Chuditch ho rezerva 0.7 tcf, kampu gas Kelp Deep ho estimasaun rezerva 8.4 – 13.6 tcf, no potensia gas em jeral iha teritoriu TL (Fontes informasaun: ANPM). Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gas ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro, potensia mina TL emjeral inklui kampu greater sunrise ho potensia mina equivalente 6,3 billioens barel petroleum nebee bele produs to’o 50 anos ho valor osan $ 378 billioens dollars. Potensia nee bele reprezenta fundu explorasaun nebee sei konsume $ 223 billioens dollars ba nesesidades sira hanesan kestaun teknika, dezenvolvimentu, manutensaun, operasaun no benefisiu fiskal no rendimentu publiku liu $ 47 billioens dollars (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias sapo.tl, edisaun 18 abril 2019, horas 19:12).

vi. Benefisiu husi profit rezultadu faan mina no gas kampu GS. Komersialidade kampu GS depende ba rezerva mina no gas, presu no demanda gas iha merkadu. Investimentu kustu ba projeitu ou Capex (capital expenditure); explorasaun, perfurasaun, produsaun, pipeline no fatin prosesamentu produtu ate to'o marketing ou hanaran upstream, midstream no downstream purvolta $ 10.5 billioens to'o 12 billioens dollars. Maibe wainhira hahu halo produsaun inisiu ba kampu GS kustu rekoperasaun nebee sei hetan premeiru bele to'o $ 28 ate $ 54 billioens dollars amerikanu, nunee fo certeza boot ba TL no atrai international oil company (IOC) hodi investa no halo produsaun hodi asegura fundu petroleum ba jerasaun agora no futuru (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias gmntv.tl, edisaun 12 maio 2019).

vii. Benefisiu adisional husi planta LNG no refinaria mak uja fasilidades laos deit likifika gas ou produs mina husi rai laran, maibe mos bele importa mina no gas husi nasaun seluk hodi halo prosesamentu molok hodi ba merkadu.

viii. Benefisiu intermu fahe produsaun iha kampu greater sunrise (GS). Profit indikator nebee bain-bain uja iha industria minarai mak; net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratio (B/C), no payback of time (POT). Kompanya sempre investa wainhira valor IRR boot liu minimum actractive of return (MARR). Analizasaun project economics nudar sasukat ba companya operador, joint venture no host country foti desijaun ba dezenvolvimentu projeitu kampu GS. Ho realijasaun fronteira maritima (FM) hamosu regime espesial foun iha kampu GS, maibe fo vantajem boot ba TL. Tuir akordu FM preve katak pipeline gas mai TL sei fahe rendimentu 70% mai TL no 30% ba Australia. Redimentu husi royalty 10% (5% ba governu no 5% ba kontraktores). Husi 5% ba governu sei fahe tutan ba governu TL no Australia ho percentajem 70%:30%. Enkuantu 5% seluk ba kontraktores. Rendimentu seluk TL sei hetan husi investimentu kustu capital. Kustu kapital mak tuir kontratu hare liu ba kustu peskijas hotu nebee hahu husi explorasaun geolojia, seismiku, ou buka minarai no gas husi inisiu to'o hetan petroleum ou deskobre mina no gas. Kustu kapital tuir maneira kontratu nebee iha kuandu wainhira kompanya investa osan ona hodi buka mina no gas, estadu tenke selu 100% hafoin aumenta tan 127% hanesan kreditu investimentu (investment credit ou IC). Nee maneira kontratu uja hodi atrai ekonomikamente ba kontraktores sira hodi halo investementu iha ita nia rai. Ho partisipasaun 56.56% TL nia iha dezenvolvimentu kampu GS, signifika TL mos sei benefisia husi instrumentu IC 100 + 127%.

ix. Benefisiu regime kontratu iha kampu greater sunrise (GS) depois de Fronteira Maritima (FM). Rendimentu upstream pipeline gas mai TL rejultadu sei fahe 70% ba TL no 30% ba Australia. Downstream exceptu karik IOC ruma hakarak investa entaun konserteja 100% mai TL. Fahe lukru iha kampu GS tuir kontratu sei fahe 50% ba governu (husi 50% nee sei fahe 70% ba TL no 30% ba Australia) no 50% seluk ba kontraktores. Kontratu fahe rezultadu sei aplika mos ba produsaun produtu liquidu no gas iha kampu GS. Nemak lalaok regime kontratu iha kampu GS depois de FM asina. Ho partisipasaun TL iha kampu GS sei hetan benefisiu dobru liu tan ba receitas TL. Rendimentu ba TL iha GS sei mai husi royalty, lukru, impostu, no reimbolsa ba kustu capital, domestic market obligation (DMO) no ect. Enkuantu kompanya sei hetan benefisiu husi profit share, cost recovery (CR), internal rate of return (IRR), no instrumentus fiskal seluk.

Ikus mai TL mak maioria sei benefisia entermu de fahe rezultadu ou rendimentu, royalty, impostu, reimbolsa kustu kapital 100 + 127%, fornesementu bem servisu 90% sei mai husi TL ou sujeita liu husi TL, fornesementu equipamentus no apoiu lojistika, karantina sei liu husi TL, ikus mai TLNG sei tulun diversifika rendimentu ba estadu, hamosu multiplier effect boot ba ekonomia nasaun, transfer teknolojia, konhesementu, no skills ba jovem no foin sae sira, hamoris investimentu seitor privadu, hamoris investimentu iha area turismu, edukasaun, saude, peskas, agrikultura, hotelaria, infrastruktura, emprendedorismu, no ect. Nunee sei expanda TL nia ekonomia sai independente no berdikari. God bless TL.

Referensia:
[1] ABC News (2007). “Minister upbeat about Greater Sunrise prospects” 30 May 2007. Asesu iha dia 23 Oktober 2007 di http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/05/30/1938192.htm
[3] Atlantic LNG (2005). “Train Four Starts Up.” Web: http://www.atlanticlng.com/news_releases.aspx
[4] Internet web:http://web.anpm.tl/
[5] California Energy Commission. “Liquefied Natural Gas Safety.” Asesu dia 15 Oktober 2007, web:http://www.energy.ca.gov/lng/safety.html
 [6] Timor Sea Designated Authority (TSDA), (2007). “Expression of Interest called for enhanced oil recovery of Elang-Kakatua-Kakatua North.” Konferense pers nebee anunsia iha dia 3 Oktober 2007. [6] AFP (2003). “Norway’s Statoil gets new boss amid corruption scandal,” 1 November 2003, web: http://www.petroleumworld.com/story2794.htm.
[7] Andrews, Edmund L. (2006). “U.S. Royalty Plan to Give Windfall to Oil Companies.” The New York Times, 14 February 2006.
[8] Andrews, Edmund L. (2007). “U.S. to Raise Royalty Rates for Oil and Gas Leases in the Gulf.” The New York Times, 10 January 2007.
[9] Internet web:http://www.tatoli.tl/2019/05/31-marsu-2019-fundu-pertoleu-sae-ba-biliaun-us1698/
 [10] ACIL Consulting (2002). “Development Options for Timor Sea Gas: Analysis of Implications for Australia.” Relatoriu konsultan ba governu Northern Territory, Februari 2002.
[11] Internet web:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHUb01eKH0E
[12] TVTL, GMNTV no Radio (8 Dezembru 2018): “Semináriu nasional kona-ba asuntus relasionadus ho fronteiras marítimas no nia impaktu ba atividades petrolíferas.”, Sentru Konvensaun Dili (CCD).
[13] Abrash, Abigail (2002). “Human Rights Abuses by Freeport in Indonesia” Publika husi RFK Memorial Center for Human Rights, July 2002. Asesu iha dia 24 Oktober 2007 web: http://www.mpi.org.au/…/r…/human_rights_abuse_freeport_indo/
 [14] ADB (2004). “Power Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste.” Pacific Department, Asian Development Bank, September 2004, quatasaun numeru husi sektor Investment Plan.
[15] TVTL, GMNTV no Radio (8 Janeiru 2019): “Aprezentasaun husi Chefi negosiador, ANPM, Timor Gap ep., kona-ba asuntus relasionadus ho fronteiras marítimas no sosa asoens conocophillips no shell energy.”, Parlamentu Nasional (PN).
[16] Internet web:https://www.facebook.com/TimorSeaBoundary/
 [17] Atlantic LNG (2007). Web: http://www.atlanticlng.com/
[18] Audley-Charles, M.G. (1968). “The Geology of Portuguese Timor.” Memoirs of the Geological Society of London N. 4.
[19] Bechtel Corporation. Image on website courtesy of ConocoPhillips Darwin LNG. Asesu dia 24 Oktober 2007. Web: http://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/…/darwin/darwin3.html
[20] BP (2007). “Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007.” Accessed December 2007 at http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do…
[21] Internet web:https://www.timorgap.com/databases/website.nsf/vwall/home
[22] Choudry, Aziz (2003). “Blood, Oil, Guns and Bullets.” Znet. Asesu dia 24 Oktober 2007, Web: http://www.countercurrents.org/us-choudry281103.htm
[23] Cockcroft, Peter (2007). “Integrated development of Greater Sunrise Gas: The Timor-Leste National Interest Case.” Apresentasi iha Dili, 13 April 2007.
[24] ConocoPhillips (2007). “The Darwin LNG Plant – Pioneering Aeroderivative Turbines for LNG Refrigeration Service.” Aprezenta iha oin GE Oil and Gas Conference, Florence Italia, 29-30 Januari 2007. Web: http://lnglicensing.conocophillips.com/…/0B574590-6124-462D… A5F092BC4FC2/0/DarwinLNGGEOilandGasConference.ppt
[25] East Timor Land Law Program (2004). “Report on Research Findings, Policy Options and Recommendations for a Law on Land Rights and Land Restitution.” Written by ARD, ho ajuda husi CNIC, Direktora teras no Propriadade RDTL, USAID, Juli 2004.
[26] Fay, James A. (2003a). “Model of Spills and Fires from LNG and Oil Tankers” Journal of Hazardous Materials, B96-2003, 171-188, 2003. Abstraksi iha web: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez…
[27] Fay, James A. (2003b). “Spills and Fires from LNG Tankers in Fall River (MA).” Asesu dia 10 Desember 2007 di http://www.greenfutures.org/projects/LNG/Fay.html
[28] Foss, Michelle M. (2003a). “An Introduction to LNG.” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, January 2003.
[29] Foss, Michelle M. (2003b) “LNG Safety and Security.” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, October 2003. No Ghazvinian, J. (2007). “Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil.” Publika husi Harcourt, Inc.
[30] Global Witness (2005). “Paying for Protection: The Freeport mine and the Indonesian security forces,” July 2005.
[31] Government of India. (2005). “Economic Survey.” Ministry of Finance, 27 February 2005. Asesu dia 13 Desember 2007. Web: http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2005-06/esmain.htm
[32] Gusmão, Amandio (2006). “An Overview of Timor-Leste’s Resources.” Direktora Nasional ba Mina dan Gas RDTL.
[33] Hightower, M. and Luketa-Hanlin, A. (2006a). “Guidance on Safety and Risk Management of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water.” Aprezentasaun PowerPoint, U.S. Department of Energy LNG Forums 2006.
[34] Hightower, M., Gritzo, L., Luketa-Hanlin, A., Covan, J., Tieszen, S., Wellman, G., Irwin, M., Kaneshige, M., Melof, B., Morrow, C., Ragland, D. (2006b). “Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water.” Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia Report SAND2004-6258. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550. Asesu dia 12 Desember 2007 di http://www.fossil.energy.gov/…/stor…/lng/sandia_lng_1204.pdf
[35] Hoffman, Nicholas (2007). APrezentasaun no diskusaun iha Meja bundar LNG di Dili, 13 April 2007. No ect.
[36] internet web; http://gmntv.tl/en/economia/2019/05/explorasaun-kampu-gs-sei-fo-servisu-ba-timor-oan-10-000/?fbclid=IwAR0gzQUKbZh6zxMHkabdjdZiQSVp5SFc2SKkhTn8HsxbtPrtYSnfKhQZX2g
PARTILHAR

Author: verified_user

Publicação luso-timorense sem fins lucrativos

0 comentários: