sábado, 18 de maio de 2019

Analiza risku no benefisiu pipeline gas kampu Greater Sunrise mai Timor Leste

PARTILHAR


Minarai no gas sai faktor importante ba ekonomia TL iha tempu agora no futuru. Timoroan inkluindu governu TL insiste makas pipeline tenke mai TL tamba sei fo benefisiu independente ekonomia. Iha parte seluk, pipeline mai TL iha risku ou dejafius hanesan tuir mai:

I. Risku ba pipeline. Pipeline mak pipa nebee uja hodi transfer gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) mai mai beasu ho distansia 233 km no tasi nia klean 2.800 metru. Pipa tenke dejeinu didiak tuir standarte internasional no bele atasi presaun husi tasi ben no tasi klean bele fo impaktu negativu ba tempu no difikulta fundus. Ho ida nee, pipeline tenke buka rute ida nebee besik liu para bele hamenus pipa, tenke dok husi laloran tasi, konstrusaun pipa tenke dok husi area tasi nebee fasil longsor. Wainhira determina rute pipeline, presija tebes estudu seismiku, peskija topografiku iha tasi laran (bathymetric) nebee klaru para asegura no determina rute pipa no tasi nia klean nebee akurat.

II. Risku no ameasa husi enviromentu no natureza: gempa bumi, angin topan, badai, tsunami ou inundasaun bele kauja dejastre ba infrastruktura fasilidade planta LNG no pipeline. Planta LNG mak atu likifika gas ba faze liquidu hodi uza ba produtu oin-oin. Ho ida nee, selesaun ba fatin ou enviromentu fasilidade planta LNG tenke hare didiak no hadok husi insidenti geofisika nebee ekstrim. Tamba nee presija tebes estudu sensitivitas LNG para hare didiak no hili fatin nebee akurat. Nasaun Timor Leste nia rai tuir seismik aktivu hela tamba mosu husi lempeng tektonika India-Australia no Eurasia nebee nafatin halai kuaje 7 cm kada anum. Inklui risku ba fatin protejidu: fatin fasilidade planta LNG tenke hadok husi rai nebee protezidu, stratejiku no sensitivu ho rajaun para nafatin konserva enviromentu nebee naturalmente diak, kultura no ekonomia.

III. Risku husi strutura rai: fatin fasilidade planta LNG besik iha tasi presija strutura rai nebee bele retain equipamentus no todan durante tempu naruk no permukaan rai la bele tun ou la bele iha mudansa ba rai. Inklui fatin fasilidade LNG tenke hetan asesu diak husi tanker-tanker LNG ho nia naruk 300 meter ho tasi nia klean minimal 15-20 meter para ro bele sadere. Inklui risku ba selesaun fatin atu hari fasilidade LNG tamba planta LNG depende ba medida no montante equipamentus, presija rai ho luan kuaje to’o 1-2 km2 nunee bele tau sasan no equipamentus mekaniku, tanki-tanki akumulasaun gas, jenerator no equipamentus seluk tan. Fatin ba fasilidade refere tenke besik ba tasi para hamenus distansia supply gas ba ro tanker.

IV. Risku finanseiru tamba aumenta tusan ou debe ba TL. Fundu petrolifera (FP) agora dadaun rai iha Banku Federal U.S hela deit $ 16.98 billioens dollars, enkuantu tusan ba nasaun aumenta ba bei-beik, TL nia debe hamutuk $ 452 millioens hodi konstrui estrada iha teritoriu TL. Iha parte seluk receitas domestika TL nia sei kiik tebes. Dadus hatudu 2018 ita nia receitas domestika kobra deit $ 198 millioens dollar amerikanu. Tamba nee karik OJE kada anum mak kontinua sae to'o $ 1.4 billioens dollars mak estimasaun FP bele hotu iha tinan 12 ou 13 nia laran. Risku tusan sei mai husi tan imprestimu nebee Timor Gap halo hodi investa ba projeitu pipeline no hari planta LNG. Ho partisipasaun TL via Timor Gap 56.56% iha kampu GS, TL tenke garante: tusan atu lori kadoras mai TL, tusan selu kompanya operador woodside, kompanya joint venture kompanya Osaka no parseria seluk, inklui fundu kontijensia ba seluk risku tomak 56.56%, fundu manutensaun no ect. Apakah ida nemak ita hanaran risku investimentu ba TL?. Se nunee, alternativu no dalang stratejiku no diak tuir pratika industria minarai mak governu TL via Timor Gap bele negosia fali ho international oil company (IOC) ruma para investa iha upstream, midstream no downstream nunee bele minimize no share risku. Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gap, governu TL sei evita no la uja fundu petrolifera (FP) nebee agora hela deit ona $ 16.98 billioens dollars nudar oxigeniu ba vida nasaun TL. Enkuantu tuir estudu husi Timor Gap investimentu ba upstream, midstream no downstream kustu purvolta $ 10.5 billioens to’o $ 12 billioens dollars nunee Timor Gap sei la uja FP hodi halo investimentu. Nunee investimentu bele mai husi partnership ou debe (loan). Nunee kompanya no partnership mak sei investa EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) plus finance. EPC plus finance signifika kompanya mai sei investa osan no konstrui projeitu intermu investimentu iha pipeline, marine no surface facilities. Kompanya operador, joint venture no Timor Gap bele halo impretimu hodi halo investimentu no sira sei hetan fali osan wainhira hahu halo produsaun ba kampu Greater Sunrise ho potensia rezerva gas 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet) no mina 300 MMbbls kondensadu no LPG. Kompanya sei rekopera osan via profit share, cost recovery (CR), internal rate of return (IRR), ho insentiva seluk.

V. Risku ambiental. Mega projeitu sei lori impaktu negativu ba ambiental, projeitu nee sei kria potensia ba emisaun karbon ba atmosfir no sei kria material polusaun hanesan hydrogen sulfide, mina, lisu, be foer no lisu seluk ho kuantidade boot nebee bele estraga kondisaun enviromentu. Ezemplu risku ba biodiversidade tasi nebe akontese iha dezastre Deepwater Horizon mina nakfakar estraga animal no rikusoin iha tasi laran. Husi nee hakarak fo rekomendasaun ba governu: katak presija tenke reve lei konaba Analisis Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) no presija dezenvolve modul nebee komprehensivu hodi hala’o AMDAL ba projeitu. AMDAL tenke kompostu planu jere eviromentu nebee detailu esplika konaba jere no atuasaun polusaun, jestaun planu ba dejastre no mekanismu hodi kontrola no minimija impaktu negativu tantu kultura no sosial. Objektivu reve lei hodi kontrola polusaun no difini klaru konaba konstrain ba zat-zat polusaun, inklui CO2, gas, no material kimika nebee estraga tasi ben, kualidade be no estruktura rai, inkui isu konaba polusaun sunu gas. Lei mos tenke define klaru sobre dezvantelasaun projeitu no konstrusaun depois de perioudu operasaun hodi asegura katak labele husik hela foer, material kimika no poizon sira seluk nebee bele hafoer no estraga rikusoin sira iha teritoriu TL. Rekomendasaun seluk kada lei nebe halo tenke esplika klaru konaba nia sensaun, nunee karik kompanya ou empregador kontra lei bele submete an ba justisa no kumpri tuir lei nebe vigor.

VI. Risku ba isu sosial no kultura. Maske projeitu planta LNG no refinaria lori implikasaun pozitivu, maibe nia mos lori impaktu negativu ba povu TL tamba projeitu refere sei fo “ameasa” ba ema sira nebee nain ba rai, fo risku ba sira nia vida loron-loron no bele estraga fatin sagradu nebee reprezenta valor tradisional. Inklui prejensa empregador no kompanya husi estranjeiru sei fo ameasa ba ekonomia lokal hanesan aktividades peskas no agrikultura, no sei hasa’e numeru vulnerabilidade ba sirklu feto, idouzu no labarik foin sae. Husi nee hakarak fo rekomendasaun ba governu: katak direitu ba rai nain no propriadade seluk tenke define klaru, ho rekonesementu no direitu ba rai kada pessoa inklui sistema nain tradisional. Ho ida nee, presija revizaun ba lei konaba rai no lei ba area protejidu. Desijaun saida deit konaba fatin projeitu tenke hahu uluk ho analija no kordenasaun kompostu husi tradisaun, sosial, kultura, fatin sagradu, rai no faktores seluk nebee integra iha rekomendasaun para ikus mai bele atasi impaktu negative ba projeitu. Tamba nee presija involvimentu aktivu husi sosiadade sivil no lokal. Iha parte seluk, rekuirementu kontraktual kompanya tenke konstitui ho arbitrase nebee sei mosu tamba influensia husi empregador estranjeiru no liu-liu empregador husi estranjeiru sira tenke respeitu no valorija valor no kultura lokal, inklui iha obrigasaun tenke hakruk ba tribunal no lei nebee vigor iha TL. Ho ida nee, bele minimize konflitu entre empregador lokal no internasional. Rekomendasaun seluk, entidade governu tenke tau atensaun didiak ba isu jeneru para la bele kria diskriminasaun iha servisu fatin.

VII. Risku seluk mak sei laiha rendementu ba taxa ne’ebe signifikante, dependente maka’as ba industria petroleum, kuaze servisu hotu fo ba ema estranjeiru bele prejudika vida sosial no estabilidade, estraga meiu ambiente, muda ema husi sira nia rain-rasik no projeitu sei okupa rai no tasi hodi limite to’os nain no peskadores sira hodi kaer ikan no ect, asidente katastrofiku, violasaun ba diretus humanu no komunidade bele prejudika impresaun seguransa no politika, projetu enklave sei la rekruta ema Timor-oan ka aumenta infrastrutura lokal ka industria. Konsekuensia sira ne’e tipiku tebes ba projetu petroleu iha nasaun barak no akontese nunee. Tamba nee presija antesipa no tenke iha planu integradu hodi kombate risku hirak nee.  Skenariu hirak temi ona iha leten sei la akontese, depende ba asaun no boa vontade husi entidade nasaun nia tenke involve no partisipa aktivu komesa husi governu, kompanya minarai, lideransa no autoridade lokal, lideransa adat, igreija, forsa FFDTL, PNTL, populasaun sipil no kada individu tenke preparadu kontribui no promove paz, dame, estabilidade no unidade nasional hodi simu no kontribui ba projeitu pipeline, hari fasilidade planta LNG, refinaria no industria derivative seluk para asegura katak mega projeitu refere sei lori benefisiu no oportunidade boot ba ekonomia TL.

VIII. Pra duga katak iha risku seguransa no politika interna no externa karik TL la fahe receitas ho Australia. Maibe tamba TL fahe receitas 30% ba Australia tuir akordu fronteira maritime asina iha 06 marsu 2018. Signifika Australia mos sei tulun diminui impresaun seguransa no politika interna no externa tamba Australia hetan benefisiu no sei ajuda hodi halo kontrolasaun no seguransa ba vida kampu greater sunrise, nunee mos Australia sei fo seguransa no kontrolasaun util pipeline mai TL. Fahe 30% ba Australia hodi garantia ratifikasaun ba Fronteira maritime, inklui garante kondisaun equivalente, asegura relasaun bilateral nasaun rua nian, diplomasia, seguransa, politika no futuru koperasaun iha rejiaun nee.

IX. Risku ba equipamentus pipeline, fasilidades planta LNG no refinaria. Refinaria mak fabrika ou fasilidade industria hodi produs mina (crude oil) sai produtu petroleum nebee bele uja direitamente ou produtu oin-oin nebee sai nesesidade baziku ba industria petrokimika. Produtu refinaria mak gasoline, combustivel diesel, kerosene, elpije, mina nafta, no produtu seluk. Planu governu TL refinaria sei hari iha Betanu. Enkuantu suai supply base signifika fatin lojistiku ou apoiu lojistiku ba aktividades industria nebe opera iha teritoriu TL, tantu aktividade industria iha tasi laran nomos iha rai maran. Risku ba equipamentus pipeline, fasilidades planta LNG no refinaria signifika katak iha industria mina no gas nafatin hare ba efektividade kustu projeitu (cost effective) no investimentu projeitu to’o tempu naruk (long investment). Tamba nee identifikasaun ba rezervatoriu mina no gas (proven reserve) importante tebes hodi optimiza no garantia kontinuidade operasaun fasilidades planta LNG to’o tempu naruk. Wainhira kampu greater sunrise produs besik remata, presija tebes identifikasaun kampu petroleum seluk hodi asegura kontinuidade operasaun equipamentus no fasilidades planta LNG.  Tamba rekursu mina no gas nebee limitadu no hotu sei prejudika equipametus planta LNG sai frujen, barailu, at, ikus mai abandona. Tamba nee bain-bain iha pratika real industria minarai, presija tebes investimentu massiva ba aktividades explorasaun (aktividades sira nebee ligadu ho buka mina no gas) ikus mai hatene TL nia proven reserve mina no gas hodi asegura kontinuidade no sustentabilidades industria petrolifera.

X. Risku no oportunidade merkadu LNG (demand and bayer market). Saida mak LNG?. LNG mak abreviasaun husi Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG hetan husi pemampatan no cooling gas natural to’o pontu kiik liu (due poit) ho aproximasaun -1600C (-2600F). Natural gas signifika gas nebee fasil atu sunu, komponentes importante nebee eziste iha natural gas mak husi metana ho volume liu 80%, inklui komponente etana, propane, butane, nitrogen no helium. Produtu helium importante tebes uja ba seitor defeza. Gas natural mosu iha rai nia okos no dala ruma mistura ho mina. Benefisiu husi gas natural mak bele uja hanesan kobustivel no bele produs produtu ou various sasan kimika. Korea, China, Japan, no ect, nudar nasaun importador gas. Agora dadaun gas nebee produs iha kampu Bayu Undun supply tuir pipa ba Darwin LNG, depois liquifika molok faan ba Jepan. Merkadu mundial konaba LNG sei kontinua dezenvolve tebes. Tuir data husi BP Statistical Review of World Energy hatudu aktividades komersiu LNG internasional ho montante negosiu hamutuk 211 billioens metru kubiku. Montante ida nee kuaze 7% husi natural gas equivalente nebee konsumu iha global no restu 93% seluk supply tuir pipa ba konsumedor sira. Husi gas natural nebee uja iha mundu, 15,4% mak konsumedor maioria iha nasaun asia-pasifiku no numeru konsumudor kada tinan sempre aumenta 7% (BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2007). Data hatudu tinan 2020 nasaun Amerika sei sai nasaun terseiru eksportir LNG boot iha mundu tuir Energy Information Administration/EIA. Amerika nia kapasidade eksportasaun LNG liu Malaysia. Maibe iha tinan rua liu Australia ho Qatar mak eksporta LNG boot liu Amerika. Data hatudu exportasaun LNG Amerika atinji 1,94 milliaun kubiku feet kada loron iha tinan 2017. Eksportasaun LNG husi Amerika kuaze ba 25 nasaun. Amerika nia LNG exporta ba nasaun konsumedores: Meksiko (20%), Korea Selatan (18%), no China (15%). Iha tinan 2 mai Amerika sei dezenvolve tan projeitu LNG iha Georgia, Louisiana no Texas.

Tuir estudu no prediksaun global 2025 sei iha flooding LNG, tamba nasaun barak mak agora dezenvolve LNG. Nasaun hirak nebee agora LNG makas mak Qatar, Australia, Amerika, Nigeria, Rusia, Norwey, Filipina, Singapore, Indonesia, libya, no ect. Nasaun sira nebee agora presija LNG makas mak Jepan, Korea, Cina, no ect. Iha futuru mak flooding LNG signifika sei iha surplus ba merkadu nunee bele kauza presu LNG la estabil ou monu (BP & Pertamina, 2018). Iha parte seluk, nasaun barak agora dezenvolve reservoir uncoventional hanesan CBM, shale gas, no ect. Hodi responde ba sira nia ekonomia no energia rai laran, nunee sira hahu redus importasaun mina husi nasaun estranjeiru. Iha Amerika agora dadaun sira revitalija ratusan posu mina nebee uluk abandona agora produs hotu hodi responde ba nesesidade energia rai laran. Data hatudu Amerika nia mina husi shale oil, CBM, no ect bele responde ba Amerika nia nesesidade kobre to'o tinan 100 ba leten. Nunee Amerika agora la depende importasaun mina husi timur tengah, lybia, nigeria no ect. Iha parte seluk nasaun barak agora dezenvolve industria bateria hodi responde ba sira nia nesesidade energia rai laran no hamenus dependensia ba mina. Industria batrea ekonomia kustu baratu, numeru konsumidor barak, kria polusaun ba environmentu ki'ik kompara ho mina no gas. Presija tebes hare didiak isu global no antesipa antes para buka solusaun diak ba dezenvolvimentu mina no gas iha ita nia rai TL.

Enkuantu iha Indonesia investimentu ba LNG dominante liu investimentu ba mina. Indonesia potensia ho rekursu gas natural. Data 2015 hatudu Indonesia nia rezerva provadu gas (proven reserve) total 98 tcf (trillion cubic feet). Iha asia Indonesia sai nasaun rangkin terseiru eksportir LNG depois Australia no Qatar. Indonesia nia LNG mai husi kampu Arun, Bontang no Tangguh. Sira nia LNG faan ba China, Korea selatan, Taiwan, Jepan no ect. Signifika demanda LNG sei massiva. Nasaun barak mak sei presija tebes LNG tamba nesidade no ekonomia rai laran, elektrisidade, transportasaun, gas ba nesesidade uma laran hodi tein, hotel, restaurante, no ect. Inklui nasaun sira eropa mos sai konsumedor ba LNG. Signifika futuru mai presu LNG autentikamente sei sae makas. Nunee nesesidade merkadu LNG sei massiva. Hare ba demanda no kresimentu nesesidade LNG fo certeza no posibilija TL hodi produs kampu gas GS nebe ho potensia rezervatoriu gas 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet) no mina 300 MMbbls (kondensadu no LPG) ho kampu gas seluk nebee identifikadu ho rezerva gas produs hodi asegura sustentabilidade receitas ba kofre estadu. Wainhira TL produs ona LNG, ita bele faan ba nasaun seluk, nunee mos bele utilija ba nesesidade rai laran para tulun dudu ekonomia rai laran no redus importasaun gas husi nasaun seluk. Presija intende katak iha industria minarai sempre inherente ho risku, maibe industria nemos mai ho nia metodu rasik hodi identifika risku, mitiga risku hodi optimiza projeitu. Estudu, dadus, konhesementu, siensia no teknolojia nebee sophistikadu sei asegura sucessu ba projeitu pipeline no hari TLNG.

Benefisiu ou vantajem pipeline gas kampu greater sunrise mai TL

Iha mos benefisiu ou vantajem direita no indireita pipeline gas kampu greater sunrise mai TL no hari fasilidade planta LNG: benefisiu sei mai husi rendementu taxa, bele loke kampu servisu ba Timor-oan, kria subkontratu ba emprezariu lokal, tulun dezenvolve infrastrutura, stimula no hamoris motor dezenvolvementu ekonomia, no fasilita industria sekundariu ou derivativa seluk, inklui vantajem fiskal.

I. Pipeline gas mai TL, harii konstruksaun planta LNG no refinaria sei kria kampu serbisu ba timor oan barak bele to’o mil ba pozisaun tekniku no non-tekniku. Esperiensia hatudu iha nasaun seluk bele absorve kampu serbisu ba ema hamutuk 12000 tantu ema husi estudu area minarai no non-minarai. Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro, pipeline gas mai TL sei kria kampu servisu bele kobre to’o 10.000 pessoas (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias gmntv.tl, edisaun 12 maio 2019).

II. Vantajem ekonomia rai laran: vantajem premeiru mosu kedan wainhira komesa hari konstrusaun ba projeitu, konstrusaun pipeline nebee dada husi tasi laran to’o mai rai maran inklui aktividade seluk. Aktividade hirak nee sei konsume fundus billioens dollar amerikanu. Montante hirak mak ekonomia timor nia sei hetan tulun hadia povu nia moris. Osan ba emprejariu lokal no osan ba empregador timor oan rasik hodi hadia rendimentu iha sira nia moris. Vantajem seluk hetan husi jasa-jasa durante konstrusaun projeitu no sosa sasan husi rekursu lokal. Maneira seluk nebee fasil hodi tulun dudu ekonomia lokal wainhira projeitu hahu mak emprejariu no povu TL prepara hahan no uma ba empregador no kompanya husi estranjeiru hodi aluga ou hola uma, hotel, modo, hahan iha restaurante no nesesidade loron-loron nebee produs no prepara husi negosiu lokal. Ikus mai sei estimula ekonomia rai laran no tulun hadia povu nia moris.

III. Vantajem taxa ba governu: vantajem fijiku nebee hetan husi dezenvolvimentu projeitu mak vantajem taxa. Vantajem taxa mak rendimentu nebee governu TL hetan husi empregador no emprejariu tantu nasional no internasional. Taxa nebee emprejariu no empregador sei selu ba governu, inklui aktividades ekonomia nebee iha posibilidade sei mosu durante periodu konstrusaun no operasaun projeitu. Konsekuensia taxa husi aktividade projeitu upstream no downstream depende kondisaun taxa nebe governu TL prepara. Apakah sei kria taxa iha rai laran?, apakah sei halo regulamentu foun konaba taxa ba fasilidade?, no etc.

IV. Benefisiu direita husi mina no gas natural mak bele uja hanesan kobustivel no bele produs produtu ou sasan kimika hanesan pupuk, sepatu, roupa, lem, triplex, tinta, plastiku, roda, bola, CD, tasu, oklu, paying, pasta, mangeira, fiu eletrisidade, fatin cos ahi (terminal ahi), metro, pinsel, sasan halimar ba labarik kiik, supeita, kadeira, butyl ou fatin mina morin, camera dijital, no ect. Sasan ou equipamentus sira nee hotu produs husi mina.

V. Benefisiu seluk mak bele estimula no garantia sustentabilidade industria petroleum ate futuru. Fasilidade planta LNG nebee sei harii iha beasu laos deit produs ou likifika gas husi kampu greater sunrise (GS) ho potensia rezervatoriu 7.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet), maibe mos sei produs kampu seluk lokaliza iha tasi Timor identifikadu ho rezervatoriu gas mak kampu gas Chuditch ho rezerva 0.7 tcf, kampu gas Kelp Deep ho estimasaun rezerva 8.4 – 13.6 tcf, no potensia gas em jeral iha teritoriu TL (Fontes informasaun: ANPM). Tuir informasaun husi Timor Gas ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro, potensia mina TL emjeral inklui kampu greater sunrise ho potensia mina equivalente 6,3 billioens barel petroleum nebee bele produs to’o 50 anos ho valor osan $ 378 billioens dollars. Potensia nee bele reprezenta fundu explorasaun nebee sei konsume $ 223 billioens dollars ba nesesidades sira hanesan kestaun teknika, dezenvolvimentu, manutensaun, operasaun no benefisiu fiskal no rendimentu publiku liu $ 47 billioens dollars (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias sapo.tl, edisaun 18 abril 2019, horas 19:12).

VI. Benefisiu husi profit rezultadu faan mina no gas kampu GS. Komersialidade kampu GS depende ba rezerva mina no gas, presu no demanda gas iha merkadu. Investimentu kustu ba projeitu pipeline, explorasaun, produsaun, no fatin prosesaun produtu ate to'o marketing purvolta $ 10.5 billioens to'o 12 billioens dollars. Maibe wainhira hahu halo produsaun inisiu ba kampu GS kustu rekoperasaun nebee sei hetan premeiru bele to'o $ 28 ate $ 54 billioens dollars amerikanu, nunee fo certeza boot ba TL no atrai international oil company (IOC) hodi investa no halo produsaun hodi asegura fundu petroleum ba jerasaun agora no future (Fontes informasaun; Timor Gap ep., Eng. Francisco Monteiro deklarasaun iha noticias gmntv.tl, edisaun 12 maio 2019).

VII. Benefisiu adisional husi planta LNG no refinaria mak uja fasilidades laos deit likifika gas ou produs mina husi rai laran, maibe mos bele importa mina no gas husi nasaun seluk hodi halo prosesamentu molok hodi ba merkadu. Ikus mai TLNG sei tulun diversifika rendimentu ba estadu, hamosu multiplier effect boot ba ekonomia nasaun, transfer teknolojia, konhesementu, no skills ba jovem no foin sae sira, hamoris investimentu seitor privadu, hamoris investimentu iha area turismu, hotelaria, infrastruktura, emprendedorismu, no ect. Ikus mai expanda TL nia ekonomia sai independente no berdikari.

VIII. Benefisiu intermu fahe produsaun iha kampu greater sunrise (GS). Profit indikator nebee bain-bain uja iha industria minarai mak; NPV, IRR, B/C, no POT. Kompanya sempre investa wainhira valor internal rate of return (IRR) boot liu minimum actractive of return (MARR). Analizasaun project economics nudar sasukat ba companya operador, joint venture no host country foti desijaun ba dezenvolvimentu projeitu kampu GS. Ho realijasaun fronteira maritima (FM) hamosu regime espesial foun iha kampu GS, maibe fo vantajem boot ba TL. Tuir akordu FM preve katak pipeline gas mai TL sei fahe rendimentu 70% mai TL no 30% ba Australia. Redimentu husi royalty 10% (5% ba governu no 5% ba kontraktores). Husi 5% ba governu sei fahe tutan ba governu TL no Australia ho percentajem 70%:30%. Enkuantu 5% seluk ba kontraktores. Rendimentu seluk TL sei hetan husi investimentu kustu kapital. Kustu kapital mak tuir kontratu hare liu ba kustu peskijas hotu nebee hahu husi explorasaun geolojia, seismiku, ou buka minarai no gas husi inisiu to'o hetan petroleum ou deskobre mina no gas. Kustu kapital tuir maneira kontratu nebee iha kuandu wainhira kompanya investa osan ona hodi buka mina no gas, estadu tenke selu 100% hafoin aumenta tan 127% hanesan kreditu investimentu (investment credit ou IC). Nee maneira kontratu uja hodi atrai ekonomikamente ba kontraktores sira hodi halo investementu iha ita nia rai. Ho partisipasaun 56.56% TL nia iha dezenvolvimentu kampu GS, signifika TL mos sei benefisia husi instrumentu IC 100 + 127%.

IX. Benefisiu regime kontratu iha kampu greater sunrise (GS) depois de Fronteira Maritima (FM). Rendimentu upstream pipeline gas mai TL rejultadu sei fahe 70% ba TL no 30% ba Australia. Downstream exceptu karik IOC ruma hakarak investa entaun konserteja 100% mai TL. Fahe lukru iha kampu GS tuir kontratu sei fahe 50% ba governu (husi 50% nee sei fahe 70% ba TL no 30% ba Australia) no 50% seluk ba kontraktores. Kontratu fahe rezultadu sei aplika mos ba produsaun produtu liquidu no gas iha kampu GS. Nemak lalaok regime kontratu iha kampu GS depois de FM asina. Ho partisipasaun TL iha kampu GS sei hetan benefisiu dobru liu tan ba receitas TL. Rendimentu ba TL iha GS sei mai husi royalty, lukru, impostu, no reimbolsa ba kustu capital, domestic market obligation (DMO) no ect. Enkuantu kompanya sei hetan benefisiu husi profit share, cost recovery (CR), internal rate of return (IRR), no instrumentus fiskal seluk.

Ikus mai TL mak maioria sei benefisia entermu de fahe rezultadu ou rendimentu, royalty, impostu, reimbolsa kustu kapital 100 + 127%, fornesementu bem servisu 90% sei mai husi TL ou sujeita liu husi TL, fornesementu equipamentus no apoiu lojistika, karantina sei liu husi TL, nunee ikus mai TL mak sei sai benefisiariu wainhira pipeline gas mai TL. God bless TL.
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